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In computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems. While including those who endeavor to strengthen such mechanisms, it is more often used by the mass media
 and popular culture to refer to those who seek access despite these security measures. That is, the media portrays the 'hacker' as a villain. Nevertheless, parts of the subculture see their aim in correcting security problems and use the word in a positive sense. White hat is the name given to ethical computer hackers, who utilize hacking in a helpful way. White hats are becoming a necessary part of the information security field.[8]
 They operate under a code, which acknowledges that breaking into other people's computers is bad, but that discovering and exploiting security mechanisms and breaking into computers is still an interesting activity that can be done ethically and legally. Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the context.
The subculture around such hackers is termed network hacker subculture, hacker scene, or computer underground. It initially developed in the context of phreaking
 during the 1960s and the microcomputer BBS scene
 of the 1980s. It is implicated with"2600: The Hacker Quarterly
" and the"alt.2600
" newsgroup.
In 1980, an article in the August issue of "Psychology Today
" (with commentary by Philip Zimbardo
) used the term "hacker" in its title: "The Hacker Papers". It was an excerpt from a Stanford Bulletin Board discussion on the addictive nature of computer use. In the 1982 film "Tron
", Kevin Flynn (Jeff Bridges
) describes his intentions to break into ENCOM's computer system, saying "I've been doing a little hacking here". CLU is the software
 he uses for this. By 1983, hacking in the sense of breaking computer security had already been in use as computer jargon,[9]
 but there was no public awareness about such activities.[10]
However, the release of the film"WarGames
" that year, featuring a computer intrusion into NORAD
, raised the public belief that computer security hackers (especially teenagers) could be a threat to national security. This concern became real when, in the same year, a gang of teenage hackers inMilwaukee, Wisconsin
, known as The 414s
, broke into computer systems throughout the United States
, including those of Los Alamos National Laboratory
, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
 and Security Pacific Bank
 The case quickly grew media attention,[11]
 and 17-year-old Neal Patrick emerged as the spokesman for the gang, including a cover story in"Newsweek
" entitled "Beware: Hackers at play", with Patrick's photograph on the cover.[13]
 The "Newsweek" article appears to be the first use of the word "hacker"by the mainstream media in the pejorative sense.
Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman
 called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking.[14]
 Neal Patrick testified before the U.S. House of Representatives
 on September 26, 1983, about the dangers of computer hacking, and six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year.[15]
 As a result of these laws against computer criminality, white hat, grey hat
 and black hat hackers try to distinguish themselves from each other, depending on the legality of their activities. These moral conflicts are expressed in The Mentor
's "The Hacker Manifesto
", published 1986 in "Phrack
Use of the term hacker meaning computer criminal was also advanced by the title "Stalking the Wily Hacker", an article by Clifford Stoll
 in the May 1988 issue of the "Communications of the ACM
". Later that year, the release byRobert Tappan Morris, Jr.
 of the so-called Morris worm
 provoked the popular media to spread this usage. The popularity of Stoll's book "The Cuckoo's Egg
", published one year later, further entrenched the term in the public's consciousness.Classifications
Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with whom they do not agree.
Eric S. Raymond
, author of "The New Hacker's Dictionary
", advocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers. Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and even try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as a wider hacker culture, a view that Raymond has harshly rejected. Instead of a hacker/cracker dichotomy, they emphasize a spectrum of different categories, such as white hat
, grey hat
,black hat
 and script kiddie
. In contrast to Raymond, they usually reserve the term "cracker" for more malicious activity.
According to Ralph D. Clifford, a "cracker"or "cracking" is to "gain unauthorized access to a computer in order to commit another crime such as destroying information contained in that system".[16]
 These subgroups may also be defined by the legal status of their activities.[17]
White hatMain article: White hat

A white hat hacker
 breaks security for non-malicious reasons, either to test their own security system, performpenetration tests
 or vulnerability assessments
 for a client - or while working for a security company which makes security software. The term is generally synonymous with ethical hacker
, and the EC-Council,[18]
 among others, have developed certifications, courseware, classes, and online training covering the diverse arena of ethical hacking.[17]
Black hatMain article: Black hat

A "black hat" hacker is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain" (Moore, 2005).[19]
 The term was coined by Richard Stallman
, to contrast the maliciousness of a criminal hacker versus the spirit of playfulness and exploration in hacker culture
, or the ethos of the white hat hacker
 who performs hacking duties to identify places to repair or as a means of legitimate employment.[20]
 Black hat hackers form the stereotypical, illegal hacking groups often portrayed in popular culture, and are "the epitome of all that the public fears in a computer criminal".[21]
Grey hatMain article: Grey hat

A grey hat hacker lies between a black hat and a white hat hacker. A grey hat hacker may surf the Internet and hack into a computer system for the sole purpose of notifying the administrator that their system has a security defect, for example. They may then offer to correct the defect for a fee.[21]
 Grey hat hackers sometimes find the defect of a system and publish the facts to the world instead of a group of people. Even though grey hat hackers may not necessarily perform hacking for their personal gain, unauthorized access to a system can be considered illegal and unethical.Elite hacker
A social status
 among hackers, "elite" is used to describe the most skilled. Newly discovered exploits
 circulate among these hackers. Elite groups
 such as Masters of Deception
 conferred a kind of credibility on their members.[22]
Script kiddie
A script kiddie
 (also known as a "skid" or"skiddie") is an unskilled hacker who breaks into computer systems by using automated tools written by others (usually by other black hat hackers), hence the term script (i.e. a prearranged plan or set of activities) kiddie (i.e. kid, child—an individual lacking knowledge and experience, immature),[23]
 usually with little understanding of the underlying concept.Neophyte
A neophyte ("newbie
", or "noob") is someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology and hacking.[21]
Blue hat
A blue hat
 hacker is someone outside computer security consulting firms who is used to bug-test a system prior to its launch, looking for exploits so they can be closed. Microsoft
 also uses the term"BlueHat" to represent a series of security briefing events.[24]
A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to publicize a social, ideological, religious or political message.
 can be divided into two main groups:
  * Cyberterrorism
 — Activities involvingwebsite defacement
 or denial-of-service attacks
; and,
  * Freedom of information
 — Making information that is not public, or is public in non-machine-readable formats, accessible to the public.Nation state
Intelligence agencies and cyberwarfare
operatives of nation states.[27]
Organized criminal gangs
Groups of hackers that carry out organized criminal activities for profit.[27]
AttacksMain article: Computer security

A typical approach in an attack on Internet-connected system is:
  * Network enumeration
: Discovering information about the intended target.
  * Vulnerability analysis
: Identifying potential ways of attack.
  * Exploitation
: Attempting to compromise the system by employing the vulnerabilities found through the vulnerability analysis.[28]

In order to do so, there are several recurring tools of the trade and techniques used by computer criminals and security experts.Security exploitsMain article: Exploit (computer security)

A security exploit is a prepared application that takes advantage of a known weakness.[29]
 Common examples of security exploits are SQL injection
, cross-site scripting
 and cross-site request forgery
 which abuse security holes that may result from substandard programming practice. Other exploits would be able to be used through File Transfer Protocol
(FTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol
, Telnet
 and some Web pages. These are very common in Web site and Web domain hacking.Techniques      Vulnerability scanner  * A vulnerability scanner
 is a tool used to quickly check computers on a network for known weaknesses. Hackers also commonly use port scanners
. These check to see which ports on a specified computer are "open" or available to access the computer, and sometimes will detect what program or service is listening on that port, and its version number. (Firewalls
 defend computers from intruders by limiting access to ports and machines, but they can still be circumvented.)      Finding vulnerabilities  * Hackers may also attempt to find vulnerabilities manually. A common approach is to search for possible vulnerabilities in the code of the computer system then test them, sometimes reverse engineering
 the software if the code is not provided.      Brute-force attack  * Password guessing. This method is very fast when used to check all short passwords, but for longer passwords other methods such as the dictionary attack are used, because of the time a brute-force search takes.[30]
      Password cracking  * Password cracking
 is the process of recovering passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. Common approaches include repeatedly trying guesses for the password, trying the most common passwords by hand, and repeatedly trying passwords from a "dictionary", or a text file with many passwords.      Packet analyzer  * A packet analyzer
 ("packet sniffer") is an application that captures data packets, which can be used to capture passwords and other data in transit
 over the network.      Spoofing attack (phishing)  * A spoofing attack
 involves one program, system or website that successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and is thereby treated as a trusted system by a user or another program — usually to fool programs, systems or users into revealing confidential information, such as user names and passwords.      Rootkit  * A rootkit
 is a program that uses low-level, hard-to-detect methods to subvert control of an operating system from its legitimate operators. Rootkits usually obscure their installation and attempt to prevent their removal through a subversion of standard system security. They may include replacements for system binaries, making it virtually impossible for them to be detected by checking process tables
.      Social engineering * In the second stage of the targeting process, hackers often use Social engineering
 tactics to get enough information to access the network. They may contact the system administrator and pose as a user who cannot get access to his or her system. This technique is portrayed in the 1995 film "Hackers", when protagonist Dade "Zero Cool" Murphy calls a somewhat clueless employee in charge of security at a television network. Posing as an accountant working for the same company, Dade tricks the employee into giving him the phone number of a modem so he can gain access to the company's computer system.  * Hackers who use this technique must have cool personalities, and be familiar with their target's security practices, in order to trick the system administrator into giving them information. In some cases, a help-desk employee with limited security experience will answer the phone and be relatively easy to trick. Another approach is for the hacker to pose as an angry supervisor, and when his/her authority is questioned, threaten to fire the help-desk worker. Social engineering is very effective, because users are the most vulnerable part of an organization. No security devices or programs can keep an organization safe if an employee reveals a password to an unauthorized person.  * Social engineering can be broken down into four sub-groups:
  * "*Intimidation*" As in the "angry supervisor" technique above, the hacker convinces the person who answers the phone that their job is in danger unless they help them. At this point, many people accept that the hacker is a supervisor and give them the information they seek.
  * "*Helpfulness*" The opposite of intimidation, helpfulness exploits many people's natural instinct to help others solve problems. Rather than acting angry, the hacker acts distressed and concerned. The help desk is the most vulnerable to this type of social engineering, as (a.) its general purpose is to help people; and (b.) it usually has the authority to change or reset passwords, which is exactly what the hacker wants.[31]

  * "*Name-dropping*" The hacker uses names of authorized users to convince the person who answers the phone that the hacker is a legitimate user him or herself. Some of these names, such as those of webpage owners or company officers, can easily be obtained online. Hackers have also been known to obtain names by examining discarded documents ("dumpster diving"
  * "*Technical*" Using technology is also a way to get information. A hacker can send a fax or email to a legitimate user, seeking a response that contains vital information. The hacker may claim that he or she is involved in law enforcement and needs certain data for an investigation, or for record-keeping purposes.      Trojan horses  * A Trojan horse
 is a program that seems to be doing one thing but is actually doing another. It can be used to set up a back door
 in a computer system, enabling the intruder to gain access later. (The name refers to the horse
 from theTrojan War
, with the conceptually similar function of deceiving defenders into bringing an intruder into a protected area.)      Computer virus  * A virus
 is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. By doing this, it behaves similarly to a biological virus
, which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. While some viruses are harmless or mere hoaxes, most are considered malicious.      Computer worm  * Like a virus, a worm
 is also a self-replicating program. It differs from a virus in that (a.) it propagates through computer networks without user intervention; and (b.) does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Nonetheless, many people use the terms "virus" and "worm" interchangeably to describe any self-propagating program.      Keystroke logging * A keylogger
 is a tool designed to record ("log") every keystroke on an affected machine for later retrieval, usually to allow the user of this tool to gain access to confidential information typed on the affected machine. Some keyloggers use virus-, trojan-, and rootkit-like methods to conceal themselves. However, some of them are used for legitimate purposes, even to enhance computer security. For example, a business may maintain a keylogger on a computer used at a point of sale
 to detect evidence of employee fraud.      Attack patterns  * Attack patterns
 are defined as series of repeatable steps that can be applied to simulate an attack against the security of a system. They can be used for testing purposes or locating potential vulnerabilities. They also provide, either physically or in reference, a common solution pattern for preventing a given attack.
*Tools and Procedures*  * A thorough examination of hacker tools and procedures may be found in Cengage Learning's E|CSA certification workbook.[32]
Notable intruders and criminal hackersMain article: List of computer criminals
Notable security hackersMain article: List of hackers

  * Andrew Auernheimer
, sentenced to 3 years in prison, is a grey hat hacker whose security group Goatse Security
exposed a flaw in AT&T's iPad security.
  * Dan Kaminsky
 is a DNS
 expert who exposed multiple flaws in the protocol and investigated Sony's rootkit security issues in 2005. He has spoken in front of the United States Senate on technology issues.
  * Ed Cummings
 (also known as Bernie S
) is a longstanding writer for "2600: The Hacker Quarterly". In 1995, he was arrested and charged with possession of technology that could be used for fraudulent purposes, and set legal precedents after being denied both a bail hearing and a speedy trial.
  * Eric Corley
 (also known as Emmanuel Goldstein
) is the longstanding publisher of "2600: The Hacker Quarterly
". He is also the founder of the Hackers on Planet Earth
 (HOPE) conferences. He has been part of the hacker community since the late 1970s.
  * Susan Headley
 (also known as Susan Thunder), was an American hacker active during the late 1970s and early 1980s widely respected for her expertise in social engineering
, and psychological subversion
 She became heavily involved in phreaking
 with Kevin Mitnick
 and Lewis de Payne in Los Angeles
, but later framed them for erasing the system files at US Leasing after a falling out, leading to Mitnick's first conviction.[34]

  * Gary McKinnon
 is a Scottish hacker who was facing extradition
 to theUnited States
 to face criminal charges. Many people in the UK called on the authorities to be lenient with McKinnon, who suffers from Asperger syndrome
. The extradition has now been dropped.[35]

  * Gordon Lyon
, known by the handle Fyodor, authored the Nmap Security Scanner
 as well as many network security books and web sites. He is a founding member of the Honeynet Project
 and Vice President of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
  * Guccifer 2.0
, who claimed that he hacked into the Democratic National Committee
 (DNC) computer network
  * Jacob Appelbaum
 is an advocate, security researcher, and developer for the Tor
 project. He speaks internationally for usage of Tor by human rights groups and others concerned about Internet anonymity and censorship.
  * Jude Milhon
 (known as St. Jude) was an American hacker and activist, founding member of the cypherpunk
movement, and one of the creaters ofCommunity Memory
, the first public computerized bulletin board system

  * Kevin Mitnick
 is a computer security consultant and author, formerly the most wanted computer criminal inUnited States

  * Len Sassaman
 was a Belgian computer programmer and technologist who was also a privacy advocate.
  * Meredith L. Patterson
 is a well-known technologist and biohacker
 who has presented research with Dan Kaminsky
and Len Sassaman
 at many international security and hacker conferences.
  * Kimberley Vanvaeck
 (known as Gigabyte) is a Belgian hacker recognized for writing the first virus inC#

  * Michał Zalewski
 (lcamtuf) is a prominent security researcher.
  * Rafael Núñez
, a.k.a. RaFa, was a notorious hacker who was sought by the Federal Bureau of Investigation
 in 2001. He has since become a respected computer security consultant and an advocate of children's online safety.
  * Solar Designer
 is the pseudonym of the founder of the Openwall Project
The computer underground[2]
 has produced its own specialized slang, such as 1337speak
. Its members often advocate freedom of information, strongly opposing the principles of copyright, as well as the rights of free speech and privacy.["citation needed
"]Writing software and performing other activities to support these views is referred to as hacktivism
. Some consider illegal cracking ethically justified for these goals; a common form is website defacement
. The computer underground is frequently compared to the Wild West.[39]
 It is common for hackers to use aliases to conceal their identities.Hacker groups and conventionsMain articles: Hacker conference
 and Hacker group

The computer underground is supported by regular real-world gatherings called hacker conventions
 or "hacker cons". These events includeSummerCon
 (Summer), DEF CON
 (Christmas), ShmooCon
(February), BlackHat
, Chaos Communication Congress
, AthCon, Hacker Halted, and HOPE.["citation needed
"]Local Hackfest groups organize and compete to develop their skills to send a team to a prominent convention to compete in group pentesting, exploit and forensics on a larger scale. Hacker groups became popular in the early 1980s, providing access to hacking information and resources and a place to learn from other members. Computer bulletin board systems
(BBSs), such as the Utopias, provided platforms for information-sharing via dial-up modem. Hackers could also gain credibility by being affiliated with elite groups.[40]
Consequences for malicious hackingIndiaSectionOffencePunishment
65"Tampering with computer source documents" – Intentional concealment, destruction or alteration of source code when the computer source code is required to be kept or maintained by law for the time being in forceImprisonment up to three years, or/and with fine up to 20000 rupees
66HackingImprisonment up to three years, or/and with fine up to 50000 rupees
  * Article 138ab of Wetboek van Strafrecht
 prohibits"computervredebreuk", which is defined as intruding an automated work or a part thereof with intention and against the law. Intrusion is defined as access by means of:
  * Defeating security measures

  * By technical means
  * By false signals or a falsecryptographic key

  * By the use of stolen usernames
and passwords
Maximum imprisonment is one year or a fine of the fourth category.[41]
United States
18 U.S.C.
 § 1030
, more commonly known as the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
, prohibits unauthorized access or damage of "protected computers". "Protected computers" are defined in 18 U.S.C.
 § 1030(e)(2)
  * A computer exclusively for the use of a financial institution or the United States Government, or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, used by or for a financial institution or the United States Government and the conduct constituting the offense affects that use by or for the financial institution or the Government.
  * A computer which is used in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce or communication, including a computer located outside the United States that is used in a manner that affects interstate or foreign commerce or communication of the United States;
The maximum imprisonment or fine for violations of the "Computer Fraud and Abuse Act" depends on the severity of the violation and the offender's history of violations under the "Act".Hacking and the mediaHacker magazinesMain category: Hacker magazines

The most notable hacker-oriented print publications are "Phrack
", "Hakin9
" and"2600: The Hacker Quarterly
". While the information contained in hacker magazines and ezines
 was often outdated by the time they were published, they enhanced their contributors' reputations by documenting their successes.[40]
Hackers in fictionSee also: List of fictional hackers

Hackers often show an interest in fictional cyberpunk
 and cyberculture
literature and movies. The adoption offictional
 symbols, values and metaphors
 from these works is very common.[43]
  * The cyberpunk
 novels of William Gibson
—especially the Sprawl trilogy
—are very popular with hackers.[44]

  * Helba
 from the ".hack
" manga and anime series
  * Merlin of Amber
, the protagonist of the second series in "The Chronicles of Amber
" by Roger Zelazny
, is a young immortal hacker-mage prince who has the ability to traverse shadow dimensions.
  * Lisbeth Salander
 in "The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo
" by Stieg Larsson

  * Alice from "Heaven's Memo Pad
  * "Ender's Game
" by Orson Scott Card

  * "Evil Genius
" by Catherine Jinks

  * "Hackers" (anthology)
 by Jack Dann
and Gardner Dozois

  * "Little Brother
" by Cory Doctorow

  * "Neuromancer
" by William Gibson

  * "Snow Crash
" by Neal Stephenson

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